Announcements and Reminders
Comments on Assignment 1
Word::Word(const char* text)
Rvalue referencesRvalue references permits a reference to bind to a rvalue – a temporary or a literal. This is useful for the move constructor or the move assignment operator, avoiding the expense of copying an object for this purpose.
With the use of rvalue references in C++11, the move constructor and the move assignment operator was added as a replacement for the copy constructor and the overloaded assignment operator.
Example 2-4 – Move Semantics
typedef and using
The keyword, typedef, originally from C, is used to define a type.
C++ 11 introduced the keyword, using to act like typedef.
The typeid operator returns an identifier of a type, a variable or an expression. The return of the typeid is a class type, called type_info. You can use the name() member function of the type_info class to display a literal description of the type.
Example 1-8 – typedef, using, typeid
The generic size function
The generic size function was introduced in C++17. It returns the size of an array (number of elements) or the size of a C++ container;
Example 2-6 - The size function
C++ Cast Operators
A static_cast is used to convert one type to another. Generally, static_casts should not be used and may be considered dangerous. Often, conversions are automatic and the need to use a static_cast may imply that incorrect types are in use. Static_cast are often used to convert one pointer type to another, or to convert an enumerated value to an integer value.
Example 4-1 – static_cast
A const_cast is used to add or remove constness to an expression. Note, removing constness from a “pointed to” value may result in undefined behavior.
Example 4-2 – const_cast
A reinterpret_cast is used to cast one type to another. It is most commonly used to treat one pointer type as another pointer type, or to treat a pointer type as an integer type and vice versa. Note, this case type may be unsafe and to use it effectively, the sizes of the casted value and the casted type should match.
Example 4-3 – reinterpret_cast
A dynamic_cast is used with inheritance to cast a base class pointer or reference to a derived class pointer or references. This is called downcasting. In order for this to succeed, the base class must be polymorphic (contains a virtual function).
Example 4-4 – dynamic_cast